MS Access database files will grow over time as you use them and over time the performance of the database can be affected. Access databases also can become corrupted or damaged.

You can use Microsoft access to do a Compact and Repair to either prevent these issues or to fix the issue.

Before you begin make sure to make a backup of your access database.

If you have the database open in Microsoft Access click the Microsoft Office Button , point to Manage, and then, under Manage this database, click Compact and Repair Database.

Here are some of the reasons that Microsoft recommends doing this

Database files grow with use

As you add and update data and change its design, a database file becomes larger. Some of this growth comes from new data, but some comes from other sources:

  • Access creates temporary, hidden objects to accomplish various tasks. Sometimes, these temporary objects remain in your database after Access no longer needs them.
  • When you delete a database object, the disk space that the object occupied is not automatically reclaimed the database file still uses that disk space, even though the object is deleted.

As your database file fills up with the remains of temporary and deleted objects, its performance can degrade. Objects may open more slowly, queries may take longer than normal to run, and typical operations generally seem to take longer.
Database files can become corrupted

In particular circumstances, a database file can become corrupted. If a database file is shared over a network and multiple users work directly with the file simultaneously, that file has a small risk of becoming corrupted. The risk of corruption is somewhat greater if users frequently edit data in Memo fields, and the risk grows over time. You can mitigate this risk by using the Compact and Repair command.